Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
- Ethanoic acid is a weak monoprotic acid. As such, its chemical properties are similar to acids such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulphuric acid.
- Ethanoic acid can react with:
- metal carbonate
Reactions of Carboxylic Acids with Reactive Metals
Carboxylic acids react with the more reactive metals to produce a salt and hydrogen.
CH3COOH + Zn → Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2
CH3COOH + Ca → Ca(CH3COO)2 + H2
HCOOH + Mg → Mg(HCOO)2 + H2
Reactions of Carboxylic Acids with Carbonates
As other acids, carboxylic acids react with carbonate metal to produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide.
HCOOH + Na2CO3 → HCOONa + CO2 + H2O
CH3COOH + CaCO3 → Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O
As other acids, carboxylic acids react with base oxide or alkali to produce salt and water.
HCOOH + CaO → Ca(HCOO)2 + H2O
CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O
CH3COOH + Al2O3 → Al(CH3COO)3 + H2O
Carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol with the presence of .concentrated sulphuric acid as catalyst to produce ester and water.
CH3COOH + C2H5OH → CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
CH3COOH + CH3OH → CH3COOCH3 + H2O
- The concentrated sulphuric acid acts as
- a drying agent to absorb the water that is produced
- a catalyst
- The reactant mixture needs to be heated under reflux.
Preparing of Propyl Ethanoate (ester) in Laboratory
- Propyl ethanoate, CH3COOC2H5 can be prepared in the laboratory by heating a mixture of propanoic acid and ethanol, with concentrated sulphuric acid under reflux.
- The mixture is heated under reflux to prevent the alcohol and propyl ethanoate to evaporate and escape to the surrounding.
- The mixture is heated in a water bath:
- to maintain temperature so that the temperature is not too high
- to ensure uniform heating