Fats and Oils

Fats and Oils

  1. Oils and fats belong to a group of organic compounds known as lipids.
  2. Oils and fats are natural occurring esters.
  3. Fats are found in animals.
  4. Oils are found in both animals and plants.

Structure of the Molecules

Differences between Oils and Fats

  1. Fats are solids at room temperature while oils are liquids at room temperature.
  2. The melting points of fats are higher than the melting points of oils.

Saturated and Unsaturated Fats

  1. Saturated fats molecules are molecules where the fatty acids contain single carbon-carbon
    (– C – C –) covalent bonds. 
  2. Unsaturated fat molecules are molecules where the fatty acids that contain single (– C – C –) and double ( – C = C – ) covalent bonds between carbon atoms in their hydrocarbon chain.
  3. Unsaturated fats can be converted to saturated fats when react with hydrogen gas at temperature 180° in the presence of nickel as catalyst.
  4. The reaction is an addition reaction.
  5. This process is used in manufacturing margarine.
  6. Table below summarise the difference between saturated fat and unsaturated fat.
Saturated FatsUnsaturated Fats

  1. Consist of saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chains.
  2. Higher melting point.
  3. Exist as solid at room temperature.
  4. Cannot be hydrogenated.
  5. High cholesterol content

  1. Consist of unsaturated fatty acids, which contain one or more than one double bond in the fatty acid chains.
  2. Lower melting point.
  3. Exist as liquid at room temperature.
  4. Can be hydrogenated.
  5. No cholesterol content

Palm Oil

Advantages of Using Palm Oil

  1. The advantages of using palm oil are as follows.
    1. Palm oil is commonly used in a wide range of foods
    2. Good for the human diet
    3. Inexpensive
  2. The Importance of the Palm Oil Industry to Our Country
    1. Contributing to global business
    2. Employment opportunities
    3. Reduced cost of living

Industrial Extraction of Palm Oil

  1. Following are the steps of extraction of palm oil in the industry
    1. Sterilization
      kills fungi and bacteria that damage the oil palm fruits. The fruits are sterilized in pressure vessels at 140°C for 60 minutes.
    2. Stripping
      separation of the oil palm fruit from the bunch. 
    3. Digestion
      The oil palm fruit is digested in steam-heated vessels called digesters.
    4. Pressing
      oil is produced from the oil palm fruit by pressing with a hydraulic press.
    5. Purification
      removes solids from the oil.