Modern Medicine

  1. Based on the effect of modern medicine to human body, it can be classified into four different
  2. categories namely;
    1. Analgesics
    2. Antibiotics
    3. Psychotherapeutic medicines
    4. Hormone and steroid
  3. Analgesics are drugs used to relieve pain.
  4. Antibiotics are a drug that kill or slow the growth of bacteria. 
  5. Psychotherapeutic medicines are the medicine that treats mental illness.


  1. An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain.
  2. Examples of frequently used analgesic are aspirin, paracetamol and codeine.


  1. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an
    1. analgesic (against minor pains and aches),
    2. antipyretic (against fever), and
    3. anti-inflammatory (Such as arthritis).
  2. It has also an anticoagulant (blood thinning) effect and is used in long-term low-doses to prevent heart attacks.

Side Effect

  1. Several hundred fatal overdoses of aspirin occur annually, but the vast majority of its use is beneficial.
  2. Its primary undesirable side effects, especially in stronger doses, are gastrointestinal distress (including ulcers and stomach bleeding) and tinnitus.
  3. Another side effect, due to its anticoagulant properties, is increased bleeding in menstruating women.
  1. Paracetamol (or acetaminophen), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic (against fever) drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains.
  2. It is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu medications and many prescription analgesics.
  3. It is remarkably safe in standard doses, but because of its wide availability, deliberate or accidental overdoses are not uncommon.
  4. Due to its low side effect, paracetamol is used to replace aspirin especially treatments involve children.
  5. Panadol is one the most popular brand of paracetamol in Malaysia.


  1. Codeine, when use in high dose, is an analgesic which stronger than aspirin and paracetamol.
  2. Approved indications for codeine include:
    1. cough – though its efficacy has been disputed.
    2. diarrhea
    3. mild-to-moderate pain
  3. Continuous consumption of codeine will cause addiction.


  1. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. 
  2. Antibiotics are one class of antimicrobial.
  3. An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth.
  4. Antibiotics are not effective in viral, fungal and other nonbacterial infections.
  5. Individual antibiotics vary widely in their effectiveness on various types of bacteria.
  6. Two examples of antibiotic is penicillin and streptomycin. 


  1. Penicillin was originally isolated from the Penicillium chrysogenum (formerly Penicillium notatum) mold.
  2. Penicillin is used to cure diseases that caused by bacteria infection such as
    1. gonorrhea,
    2. syphilis,
    3. anthrax,
    4. pneumonia
    5. meningitis.
  3. Generally, penicillin is safe to be used. There are only very few peoples sensitive to penicillin and experience certain side effect after consumption. 


  1. Streptomycin was the first antibiotic remedy for
    1. dry cough
    2. tuberculosis,
    3. urinary infection,
    4. pneumonia and
    5. dysentery.
  2. Streptomycin cannot be given orally, but must be administered by regular intramuscular injection.

Psychotherapeutic Medicine

Psychotherapeutic Medicine

  1. Psychotherapeutic medicines are the medicines that treats mental illness.
  2. Psychotherapeutic medicines can be divided into two groups, the stimulant and the antidepressant.


  1. A stimulant is a medicine that can increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of awakens.
  2. It can be used as recreational or therapeutically drugs to increase alertness.
  3. Sometimes it is abused to boost endurance and productivity or to suppress appetite.
  4. Examples of stimulants are
    1. caffeine
    2. nicotine
    3. amphetamines
    4. cocaine
  1. An antidepressant is a medication designed to treat depression.
  2. It will increase the brain’s neurotransmitters level and hence make people feel calm and sleepy.
  3. Antidepressants create little if any immediate change in mood and require between several days and several weeks to take effect.
  4. There are two class of antidepressant, the barbiturate and the tranquilizers.


  1. Barbiturates are organic compounds used in medicine as sedatives (to produce a calming effect), or as hypnotics (to produce sleep)
  2. The barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid.
  3. Prolonged use of the barbiturates may cause a tolerance to the user.
  4. An overdose of barbiturates can result in coma and even death.
  5. Nowaday, barbiturates have largely been replaced as sedatives by the benzodiazepines and other minor tranquilizers.


  1. Tranquilizers are drug that is used to reduce anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and related states of mental disturbance.
  2. Tranquilizers fall into two main classes, major and minor.
  3. Major tranquilizers, which are also known as antipsychotic agents, are used to treat major states of mental disturbance in schizophrenics and other psychotic patients.
  4. Major tranquilizers do not cure schizophrenia but merely suppress its symptoms.
  5. By contrast, minor tranquilizers, which are also known as antianxiety agents, , are used to treat milder states of anxiety and tension in healthy individuals or people with less serious mental disorders.
  6. The principal minor tranquilizers are the benzodiazepines. These drugs have a calming effect and eliminate both the physical and psychological effects of anxiety or fear.


  1. Hormones are organic substance secreted by plants and animals that functions in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis. 
  2. Hormones carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. 


  1. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and is produced in the pancreas. 
  2. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises after a meal. 
  3. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood.
  4. Inadequate production of insulin is responsible for the condition called diabetes mellitus. 
  5. Severe diabetics require periodic injections of insulin, which is extracted from the pancreas of pigs, sheep, and oxen. 


  1. A steroid is a lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings.
  2. Cholesterol is an important steroid, being a common component of animal cell membranes. However, a high level of it can cause various conditions and diseases, such as atherosclerosis

Anabolic Steroids

  1. Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. 
  2. Testosterone is the best known natural anabolic steroid, as well as the best known natural androgen.
  3. Examples of anabolic effects:
    1. Increased protein synthesis from amino acids
    2. Increased muscle mass and strength
    3. Increased appetite
    4. Increased bone remodelling and growth
    5. Stimulation of bone marrow increasing production of red blood cells

Side effects

  1. The side effects (some the opposite of intended effects) include elevated blood pressure and cholesterol levels, severe acne, premature baldness, reduced sexual function, and testicular atrophy.
  2. In males, abnormal breast development can occur.
  3. In females, anabolic steroids have a masculinizing effect, resulting in more body hair, a deeper voice, smaller breasts, masculinized and fewer menstrual cycles.
  1. In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex.
  2. Two types of corticosteroid that used as medicine are cortisone and prednisone.


  1. A steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. Introduced in 1948 for its anti-inflammatory effect in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, it has been largely replaced by related compounds that do not produce certain undesirable side effects.
  2. The therapeutic dose, however, when used as an anti-inflammatory drug, is much larger than the amount normally present in the body, and the minor functions of the hormone become exaggerated, leading to edema (swelling), increased gastric acidity, and imbalances in metabolism of sodium, potassium, and nitrogen.


  1. Prednisone is particularly effective as an immunosuppressant and affects virtually all of the immune system.
  2. It can therefore be used in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and to prevent and treat rejection in organ transplantation.