Composite Materials

Composite materials are substances which contain 2 or more materials that combine to produce new substances with different physical properties from the original substances. Some composite materials and their components are: Reinforced Concrete Component: Concrete (cement, sand, stones), steel Ordinary concrete is strong but heavy. Concrete pillars must be big to support the weight. They … Read more

New Uses of Glass and Ceramics

New Uses of Glass and Ceramics Photochromic Glass Photochromic glass is very sensitive to light. It darkens in the presence of bright light and lightens when the amount of sunlight lessens. Conductive Glass Conducting glass is a type of glass which can conduct electricity. It is obtained by coating a thin layer of a conducting … Read more


Ceramics Ceramic is a substance that is made from clay and hardened by heat in a furnace maintained at a high temperature. Clay is composed of aluminosilicate with sand and iron(III) oxide as impurities. Examples of ceramics include Tiles Cement Bricks porcelain The properties of ceramics include the following: The differences between the properties of … Read more


Glass It is a mixture of two or more types of metallic silicates but the main component is silicon(IV) dioxide. Glass has the following properties: Transparent and not porous Inactive chemically Can be cleaned easily Good insulators of heat and electricity Hard but brittle Can withstand compression but not pressure Soda lime glass Produced by … Read more

Glass and Ceramics

The most important component of glass and ceramics is silica ( silicon(IV) dioxide, SiO2). Both glass and ceramic have the following properties: Hard and brittle Do not conduct heat and electricity Inactive towards chemical reactions Weak when pressure is applied Can be cleaned easily

Issues in Using Synthetic Polymers

Issue in Using Synthetic Polymers Synthetic polymers have multiple uses in daily life because of the following properties: Light and strong Relatively cheap Withstand corrosion and chemical reaction Withstand action of water Non-flammable Can be colour easily Easily mould to shape Synthetic polymers are also used to replace natural polymers such as cotton, silk and … Read more

Synthetic Fibre

Synthetic Fibre Nylon and terylene are synthetic fibres which undergo the condensation polymerisation process. These fibres resemble natural fibres but more resistant to stress and chemicals, and more long-lasting.  In both cases, water is eliminated during the polymerisation process. Nylon Structure Monomer: Produced by polymerisation: CondensationUses: To make umbrellas, carpets, comb, curtains, nylon string and rope, socks, … Read more

Synthetic Rubber

Synthetic Rubber Synthetic rubber is an elastomer or polymer which regains its size original shape after being pulled or pressed. [Natural rubber is an elastomer too.] Examples of synthetic rubber are neoprene and styrene-butadiene(SBR). Neoprene Structure Monomer: ChloropreneProduced by polymerisation: AdditionUses: to make rubber gloves and to insulate electric wires. Styrene-butadiene or SBR Structure Monomer: Styrene … Read more


Plastics Plastics are light, strong and do not react with any chemical substances, like acids and alkalis. They can be made into many shapes and sizes. They are also good insulators of heat and electricity. Examples of Plastics: Polythene (polyethylene) Structure Monomer: EtheneProduced by polymerisation: AdditionUses: Plastic bags containers and cupsAdvantages:  light and strong Polyvinyl chloride … Read more


Polymerisation Polymerisation is the process of joining together the large number of monomers to form a polymer. There are 2 types of polymerisation process polylerisation by addition polylerisation by condensation Polylerisation by Addition Polymerisation by addition involves monomers with >C = C< bonding, where the monomers join together to make a long chain without losing … Read more