Polymer Polymer is a large molecule that is in the form of a long chain with a high relative molecular mass (RMM). It is made up of many smaller units called monomers, which are joined together through a process called polymerisation. Thus the monomer is actually the repetitive unit of a long polymer chain. There … Read more

Tin Based Alloy

Tin Based Alloy Examples of tin base alloy are pewter solder Most tin base alloy has shiny surface and low melting point. Pewter Component: Sn 91%, Sb 7%, Cu 2% Applications: Decorative items, souvenirs Solder Component: Sn 50%, Pb 50% Applications: Welding and soldering work (Welding) (Soldering)

Aluminium Base Alloy

Aluminium Bases Alloy Examples of aluminium base alloy are Duralumin Magnalium Aluminium has low density, hence the density of aluminium base alloy is also low. Duralumin Component: Al 95%, Cu 4%, Mg 1% Applications: Aeroplane parts, electric cables, racing bicycles Magnalium Component: Al 70%, Mg 30% Applications: Tyre rim of racing cars, skeletal body of aeroplanes

Iron Based Alloy

Iron Based Alloy Examples of iron base alloy are steel stainless steel manganese steel The iron base alloys are usually very hard Steel  Component: Fe 99%, C 1% Applications: Vehicles, ships, bridges, buildings Stainless steel Component: Fe73%, Cr 18%, Ni 8%, C 1% Applications: Kitchen appliances, watches, machine parts, knives, forks, spoons Manganese steel Component: Fe 85%, Mn 13.8%, C … Read more

Copper Based Alloy

Copper Based Alloy Examples of copper base alloy are Cupro-nickel Bronze Brass Most copper base alloy has shiny surface Cupro-nickel Component: Cu 75%, Ni 25%Applications: Coins Bronze Component: Cu 90%, Sn 10%Applications: Decorative items, medals, artwork, pots and pans Brass Component: Cu 70%, Zn 30% Applications: Decorative items, electrical appliances, musical instruments, bell, nails, screw, pots


An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals mixed in a certain percentage. Most pure metals are weak and soft. The properties of pure metals can be improved by making them into alloys. Alloys are made to increase the hardness of metals.Example:Magnalium is made from aluminium and magnesium to improve the hardness of … Read more

Ostwald Process

Ostwald Process Introduction Industrially, nitric acid is made by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia over heated platinum.  Oxidising ammonia produces oxides of nitrogen which can then be dissolved in water to produce nitric acid. Reaction Initially, nitrogen(II) oxide will be formed from the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using the transition metal platinum.Ammonia + Oxygen → … Read more

Characteristics of Ammonia

Characteristics of Ammonia Ammonia gas can turn a moist red litmus paper to blue. As an alkali, ammonia can react with acid to form salt and water.ExampleH2SO4(aq) + 2NH3(aq) → (NH4)2SO4(aq)HNO3(aq) + NH3(aq) → NH4NO3(aq)H3PO4(aq) + 3NH3(aq) → (NH4)3PO4(aq) Ammonia dissolve into water to form ammonium and hydroxide ion.NH3 + H2O→ NH4+ + OH– The hydroxide ion can react with … Read more

Haber Process

Haber Process Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber Process. In the Haber process, nitrogen gas, N2 from the air is mixed with hydrogen gas, H2 derived mainly from natural gas. The mixture is compressed to a high pressure of 200 atmospheres at a temperature of about 450°C. Iron is used as a catalyst to speed … Read more


Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia is an essential compound in industry. Although in extensive use, ammonia is both corrosive and hazardous. Uses of Ammonia The uses of ammonia include manufacturing nitrogenous fertilisers as a cooling agent in … Read more