Steroids A steroid is a lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. Cholesterol is an important steroid, being a common component of animal cell membranes. However, a high level of it can cause various conditions and diseases, such as atherosclerosis Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid … Read more


Hormone Hormones are organic substance secreted by plants and animals that functions in the regulation of physiological activities and in maintaining homeostasis. Hormones carry out their functions by evoking responses from specific organs or tissues that are adapted to react to minute quantities of them. Insulin Insulin is a hormone that regulates the level of … Read more

Psychotherapeutic Medicine

Psychotherapeutic Medicine Psychotherapeutic Medicine Psychotherapeutic medicines are the medicines that treats mental illness. Psychotherapeutic medicines can be divided into two groups, the stimulant and the antidepressant. Stimulant A stimulant is a medicine that can increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of awakens. It can be used as recreational or … Read more


Antibiotic An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.  Antibiotics are one class of antimicrobial. An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth. Antibiotics are not effective in viral, fungal and other nonbacterial infections. Individual antibiotics vary widely in their effectiveness on various types of bacteria. … Read more


Analgesic An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. Examples of frequently used analgesic are aspirin, paracetamol and codeine. Aspirin Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against … Read more

Modern Medicine

Based on the effect of modern medicine to human body, it can be classified into four different categories namely; Analgesics Antibiotics Psychotherapeutic medicines Hormone and steroid Analgesics are drugs used to relieve pain. Antibiotics are a drug that kill or slow the growth of bacteria.  Psychotherapeutic medicines are the medicine that treats mental illness.

Flavouring Agent and Sweeteners

Flavouring Agent and Sweeteners Natural flavourings are derived or extracted from plants, spices, herbs, animals, or microbial fermentations.  Artificial flavourings are mixtures of synthetic compounds that may be chemically identical to natural flavourings.  Artificial flavourings are often used in food products because of the high cost, lack of availability, or insufficient potency of natural flavourings. … Read more


Stabilizer A stabilizer is a substance to prevent or to slow down some unwanted physical changes of food. Most stabilizing and thickening agents are polysaccharides, such as starches or gums, or proteins, such as gelatin.  The primary function of these compounds is to act as thickening or gelling agents that increase the viscosity of the … Read more


Colorants/Dyes Natural colorants Most natural colorants are extracts derived from plant tissues.  The disadvantage of using natural colourants are colour intensities not consistent,  not stable (colour may change when exposed to light and heat,) may react with food. may have unwanted flavours and odours.  Supply can be instable Synthetic Colorants (Dye) Most of the synthetic … Read more


Preservative Food preservatives are classified into two main groups: antioxidants and antimicrobials Antioxidants are compounds that delay or prevent the deterioration of foods by oxidative mechanisms. Examples of antioxidants are ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and citric acid. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the growth of microorganisms in food. Examples of antimicrobials are acetic acid (vinegar), sulphur dioxide, … Read more