Food Additive

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve it or improve its flavour and appearance. Some of the commonly used food additives include preservative, colourants, stabilizers and flavouring. The chart below summarise the 4 groups of food additive Effects of Food Addictive on Health Food additive have the following effect on health. Allergy– MSG … Read more

Additive in Detergent

Additive in Detergent Biological Enzyme Examples: Amylase, lipase, protease Function: Break down fat and protein molecules in food stains. Whitening agent Examples: Sodium perborate, Sodium hypochloriteFunction: Convert stain to colourless substances Brighteners Examples: Fluorescent dye (Blancophor R)Function: Make fabrics appear brighter. Builders Examples: Sodium tripolyphosphateFunction: To soften hard water. Suspension agent (Anticoagulant) Examples: CarboxylmethylcelluloseFunction: To prevent the dirt particles removed from … Read more

Effectiveness of Detergent

Effectiveness of Soap And Detergent Soap Advantages: More effective than water. It is biodegradable, will not pollute the water. Disadvantages: Will form scum with hard water. (Hard water is the water which rich in Ca2+ ions and Mg2+ ions)Not effective in acidic water. Detergent Advantages: More effective than water. Will not form scum with hard … Read more

The Making of Detergent

Making of Detergent Preparation of Sodium Alkyl Sulphate Stage 1: Sulphonation of alcohol The long chain alcohol is reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid to form alkyl sulphonic acid. Stage 2: Neutralization The alkyl sulphonic acid is then neutralised sodium hydroxide solution to produce sodium alkyl sulphate salt, which is detergent . Preparation of Sodium Alkyl … Read more


A detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. Detergent are usually made from synthetic subtances. Example of detergents are sodium alkyl sulphate and sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate. The Structure of a Detergent Molecule The basic structure of the detergent molecule is similar in nature to a soaps. It will dissolve … Read more

Cleaning Effect of Soaps

Cleaning Effect of Soaps Although water is a good solvent, it cannot dissolve oil and grease, and most of the dirt is cover by a layer of oil or grease. To eliminate the dirt from a surface, we need the help from soap. Soap is very effective in cleaning up some of the dirt that … Read more

The Making of Soap – Saponification

Making of Soap – Saponificationts Revision Alcohol react with carboxylic acid will form ester.Example:Ethanoic acid + ethanol → ethyl ethanoat (ester) + waterCH3COOH  + C2H5OH → CH3COOC2H5 + H2OThis process is call esterification, and it is a condensation reaction (take out 1 water molecule and form a covalent bond). Inversely, the ester also can be … Read more


Fatty acids are carboxylic acids that contain 4-28 carbon in the molecule. Soap is the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid. The general formula of soap is RCOO–Na+ or RCOO–K+, where R is an alkyl group that has long carbon chain. Image below shows the general structure of a soup molecule. Image below shows … Read more

SPM Form 5 Chemistry Chapter 5 – Chemical for Consumers

Revision Notes Soap The Making of Soap – Saponification Cleaning Effect of Soaps Effectiveness of Soap Detergent The Making of Detergent Effectiveness of Detergent Additive in Detergent Food Additive Preservative Colorants/Dyes Stabilizer Flavouring Agent and Sweeteners Modern Medicine Analgesic Antibiotic Psychotherapeutic Medicine Hormone Steroids Videos What is Salt Solubility of Salt Preparing Soluble Salts Steps … Read more