- Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber Process.
- In the Haber process, nitrogen gas, N2 from the air is mixed with hydrogen gas, H2 derived mainly from natural gas.
- The mixture is compressed to a high pressure of 200 atmospheres at a temperature of about 450°C.
- Iron is used as a catalyst to speed up the rate of reaction.
- Chemical equation below shows the reaction.
N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g)
- About 98% of mixture are converted into ammonia, NH3.
- The unreacted nitrogen gas, N2 and hydrogen gas, H2 is recycled and passed back into the reactor together with the new source of nitrogen gas, N, and hydrogen gas, H2.