# 3 States of Matter

Matter exists in 3 states of matter, namely, solid state, liquid state and gaseous state.

### Characteristics of Matter in Solid, Liquid and Gaseous State

#### Arrangement of Particles

 Solid Particles are arranged in an orderly manner and close to one another. Liquid Particles are not arranged in order. The space between particles is moderately large. Gas The particles are very far apart and randomly arranged.
##### Movement of Particles
 Solid Particles vibrate at fixed positions. Liquid Particles move randomly and slowly and sometimes will collide against each other. Gas The particles move randomly in all directions at great speed.

#### The force of Attraction Between Particles

 Solid very strong Liquid Strong but weaker than in the solid state. Gas very weak

#### Ability to be compressed

 Solid Very difficult to be compressed because the particles are packed closely. Liquid Not easily compressed because the particles are packed quite closely. Gas Easily compressed because the particles are very far apart.

#### Heat Energy content

 Solid Lowest Energy Content Liquid Moderate energy content. Gas Highestenergy content
##### Volume and Shape
 Volume Shape Solid Fixed Fixed Liquid Fixed Follows the container Gas Follows the container Fills the whole container

## Inter-conversion between States of Matter

### Change in Heat and Kinetic Energy of Particles

1. The change in temperature will influences the kinetic energy or the speed of the motion of the particles.
2. When a substance is heated, the kinetic energy of the particles in the substance increases. This causes the particles to move or vibrate faster.
3. Likewise, when a substance is cooled, the kinetic energy of the particles in the substance decreases. This causes the particles to move or vibrate slower.
4. The kinetic energy of the particles in a substance is directly proportional to the temperature of the substance.
##### Inter-conversion between States of Matter

Definition
Melting is the process where a solid changes to its liquid state at a certain temperature (called the melting point) and pressure when it is heated.

Notes

• When a solid is heated, the particles obtain energy and vibrate at a faster rate.
• As the temperature increases, the vibration of the particles increases until they reach the melting point where the particles obtain enough energy to overcome the forces that hold them in their fixed positions.The solid then changes into a liquid.
• During melting, the temperature remains constant. This is because the heat energy is taken in by the particles to overcome forces between them instead of being used to raise the temperature.
• The freezing and melting points of a pure substance are the same.

Definition
Freezing is the process where a liquid changes to its solid state at a certain temperature (called freezing point) and pressure when it is cooled.

Notes

• When a liquid is cooled, the temperature drops as heat energy is released to the surroundings.
• As heat energy is released, the kinetic energy of the particles in the liquid decreases, causing a slower movement of particles.
• The particles lose their energy and are pulled closer by the strong forces between the particles.
• As the temperature keep on dropping until it reach the freezing point, the liquid start changing into solid.
• The temperature stays constant while the liquid freezes because heat energy is released when the particles slow down to take up fixed and orderly positions in the solid.

Definition
Vaporization, also called evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid at a certain temperature (the boiling point) and pressure when heat is applied to it.

Notes
Evaporation

• Evaporation occurs below the boiling point of the liquid.
• The particles escape from the surface of the liquid to form gas.
• Evaporation differs from boiling in that it only takes place at the surface of the liquid and it is very slow.
• On the other hand, boiling takes place throughout the liquid and is very fast.
• Factors influencing rate of evaporation
• Humidity of the air.
• Temperature of the substance.
• Flow rate of air.
• Inter-molecular forces. The stronger the forces keeping the molecules together in the liquid or solid state the more energy that must be input in order to evaporate them.
• If conditions allow the formation of vapour bubbles within a liquid, the vaporization process is called boiling.

Boiling

• When a liquid is heated, the particles gain energy and move faster.
• As heat energy is keep on supplying to the liquid, the particles will eventually obtain enough energy to completely break the forces in between molecule.
• The liquid then changes into a gas and particles are now able to move freely and are far apart.
• The temperature at which this happens is called the boiling point.
• The temperature remains constant during boiling because heat energy that is absorbed by the particles is used to break the forces holding them together.

Definition
Condensation is the process by which a gas or vapor changes to liquid state at certain temperature and pressure when it is cooled.

Notes

• When a gas is cooled, the particles lose kinetic energy.
• As a result they move slower and this will cause the forces between them grow stronger.
• At this point, the gas changes into liquid.
• During condensation, heat is given out to the surroundings.
• Condensation can occur at or below the boiling point of the substance

Definition
Sublimation is a process of conversion of a substance from the solid to the vapour state without its becoming liquid.

Notes

• Some solids change directly into gas without becoming a liquid.
• This process is called sublimation.
• When heated, the particles of the solid gain enough energy to break the forces between them and move freely as a gas.
• When cooled, the gas changes straight back to solid.
• Examples of substances which sublime are solid carbon dioxide (dry ice), ammonium chloride and iodine.

## Heating Curve

• Naphthalene is in solid state at any temperature below its melting point.
• The particles are very closely packed together in an orderly manner.
• The forces between the particles are very strong. The particles can only vibrate at a fixed position.
• As the naphthalene is heated, heat energy is converted to kinetic energy.
• Kinetic energy increases and the molecules vibrate faster about their fixed positions and the temperature increases.
• Naphthalene is still in solid state.
• Naphthalene molecules have received enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction between them.
• Some of the particles that gain enough energy begin to move freely.
• Naphthalene starts to melt and changes into a liquid.
• Naphthalene exists in both solid and liquid states.
• The temperature remains constant because the heat that supplied to naphthalene is used to overcome the forces of attraction that hold the particles together.
• The constant temperature is called the melting point.
• The heat energy that absorbed to overcome the intermolecular forces is named as the latent heat of fusion.
• All the naphthalene has completely melted.
• Solid naphthalene has turned into liquid.
• Naphthalene is in liquid state.
• As the liquid naphthalene is heated, the molecules gain more heat energy and the temperature continues to increase.
• The particles move faster and faster because their kinetic energy is increasing.
• Naphthalene still exists in liquid state.
• Naphthalene molecules have received enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction between the particles in the liquid.
• Some of the naphthalene molecules start to move freely and liquid naphthalene begin to change into gas.
• Naphthalene exists in both liquid and gaseous states.
• The temperature remains unchanged.
• The is because the heat energy absorbed is used to overcome the intermolecular forces between the particles of the liquid rather than increase the temperature of the liquid.
• This constant temperature is the boiling point.
• All the naphthalene has turn into gas.
• The gas particles continue to absorb more energy and move faster.
• The temperature increases as heating continues.

## Cooling Curve

The graph above shows the cooling curve of a substance.
• The substance exists in gaseous state.
• The particles have very high energy and are moving randomly.
• The intermolecular forces between the particles are very weak and can be ignored.
• The substance is in gaseous state.
• The particles lose kinetic energy during cooling, the particles getting closer to each other and the temperature drops.
• The substance still exists as a gas.
• As the molecules are close enough, stronger forces of attraction result in forming of intermolecular bonds.
• The gas begins to condense and become liquid.
• The process of condensation going on.
• Stronger bonds form as gas changes into liquid.
• The substance exists in both gaseous and liquid states.
• The temperature remains unchanged.
• This is because the energy produced during the formation of bonds is equal to the heat energy released to the surroundings during cooling.
• This constant temperature is the boiling point.
• The heat energy that releases during this condensation process is called the latent heat of vaporization.
• The substance exists only in liquid state as all the gas particles have condensed into liquid.
• The substance exists as a liquid.
• As the temperature falls, the naphthalene molecules lose heat energy. Their movement shows down and they move closer to each other.
• The substance still in liquid state.
• The particles have very little energy and begin to move closer towards one another as it starts to freeze into solid.
• The liquid is changing into solid form.
• Molecules rearrange to form the molecular arrangement of a solid.
• The substance exists as both liquid and solid.
• The temperature remains constant until all the liquid changes to solid.
• This is because the energy released is the same as the energy lost to the surroundings during cooling.
• This constant temperature is the freezing point.
• The heat energy that releases during this freezing process is called the latent heat of fusion.
• All the liquid freezes into solid. The particles are now closely packed in an orderly manner.
• Once all the liquid has become solid, the temperature falls once again until it reaches room temperature. The substance is in the solid state here.
• The substance reaches room temperature and remain at this temperature as long as the room temperature remain the same.

## Melting Point, Boiling Point and State of Matter

1. The physical state of a substance at a certain temperature and pressure depends on the values of its melting and boiling points.
2. A substance is in solid state if it exists at a temperature below its melting point.
3. A substance is in liquid state if it exists at a temperature above its melting point but below its boiling point.
4. A substance is in gaseous state if it exists at a temperature above its boiling point.

## Structure Question

Structure Question 1:

The above diagram shows the apparatus used in an experiment to determine the freezing point of liquid naphthalene. The liquid naphthalene is cooled from 100°C in a conical flask and it is stirred continuously with a thermometer. The temperature of liquid naphthalene is recorded in every 30 seconds. The results obtained are tabulated below:

 Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 Temperature (oC) 100 93 85 78 78 78 78 60 43 25 25

Answer:

1. Draw a graph of temperature against time for the cooling of liquid naphthalene. [2 marks]
 (Click on the image to enlarge)
2. Determine the freezing point of liquid naphthalene from the graph.
78°C
3. c.What is the physical state of naphthalene at
1. 60s
liquid
2. 120s
liquid and solid
3. 180s
solid
4. Draw the particles arrangement of naphthalene at c.i. and  c.iiic. i.

c. ii.

5. Explain why the temperature remains constant between 3 and 6 minutes?
From the time 90 second to 180 second, naphthalene is freezing. During freezing, bonds are formed in between the molecules and energy is released. The energy lost to the surrounding is compensated by the energy released from the formation of the bonds.
6. Explain why the boiling tube is placed inside a conical flask during the cooling process.
To ensure constant cooling at slow rate for naphthalene. This can avoid super cooling.
7. Give a reason why naphthalene needs to be stirred continuously during the process?
To avoid super cooling.
8. Will the melting point of naphthalene differ if it is contaminated by other substance?
Yes
9. Sketch a graph obtained when solid naphthalene is heated from room temperature (25°C) to 100°C.

Structure Question 2:

An experiment is conducted to study the change of state of iodine. Some powder of solid iodine is heated as shown in the Figure above, the black solid iodine changes into a purple gas at 125°C. The purple gas is then cooled by a round bottom flask that fill with ice.

Answer:

1. State the process of change of state demonstrated by iodine at 125°C.
Sublimation
2. What can be observed at part R?

Some black powder form at the bottom of the flask.

3. What is the name of the process when iodine gas turns into iodine solid again?

Reverse/inverse sublimation

4. Explain why palm oil is used in the experiment instead of water.

Because iodine sublime at 125°C, the temperature which is higher than the boiling point of water.

5. Name two other substances which also sublime at atmospheric pressure (1atm).

Ammonium chloride, carbon dioxide, naphthalene.

Structure Question 3:
Table below shows the melting and boiling points of three different substances.

 Substance Melting Point Boiling Point H -120°C -5°C I 45°C 98°C J 10°C 350°C

Answer:

1. What is the physical state of H, I and J at room temperature (25°C)?

H: gaseous I: solid J: liquid

2. Which substance diffuses the fastest at room temperature? Explain your answer.

Substance H. Because substance H exist as gas at room temperature, hence there is a lot of empty space between the particles. Other than that, the particles of H have highest kinetic energy.

3. Draw some diagrams to show the arrangement of particles of substance I at 40°C, 80°C and 120°C.

At 40°C

At 80°C

At 120°C

4. What is the name of the process which atoms or molecules of a substance in liquid state gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state below boiling point.

Evaporation

5. Define boiling point.

Boiling Point is the temperature at which the pressure exerted by the surroundings upon a liquid is equalled by the pressure exerted by the vapour of the liquid.

6. Sketch the graph of temperature against time for substance I when it is cooled from 120°C to room temperature.

Structure Question 4:

 Figure (a)
 Figure (b)

Figure (a) shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the heating process of substance Y. In this experiment, solid substance Y was heated in a water bath from room temperature until it turned into gas. Substance Y was stirred throughout the whole experiment. The temperature of substance Y was recorded at fixed intervals of time and the graph of temperature against time during the heating of substance Y is shown in Figure (b) above.

Answer:

1. What is the physical state of naphthalene at the region
1. QR
solid and liquid
2. ST
liquid and gas
3. TU
Gas only
2. What is the time when substance Y begins to melt?[1 mark]

t1
3. What is the boiling point of substance Y?[1 mark]
95°C
4. Why the temperature of M remains unchanged from time t3 to t2 even though heating continues?
From t1 to t2, substance Y is melting. The heat supply to the substance is used to overcome the strong attraction force between the solid particles. No heat energy is used to increase the kinetic energy (temperature) of the particles.
5. Why water bath is used for heating the solid of substance Y?

To ensure uniform heating on substance-Y

6. Give a reason why water bath is suitable in this experiment?

Because the melting point and boiling point of substance Y is lower than the boiling point of water.

7. Name 2 substance, whose boiling point can be determined by using water bath.
Alcohol and ether
8. Given that the boiling point of substance X is around 105°C. Why can’t we use water bath to determine the boiling point of substance Y?

The boiling point of water is 100°C, which means the maximum temperature that can be achieved by water is 100°C, which is lower than the boiling point of substance-X.
Substance X can not be boiled by using water bath.

9. Suggest another method which can replace water bath in this experiment.

Use oil bath or sand bath instead of water bath.

10. Why stirring of substance Y is required throughout the whole experiment?

So that heat is spread evenly throughout the substance.

11. Compare the kinetic energy of particles of substance Y at t1 and t3.

The kinetic energy of particles at t3 is higher than the kinetic energy of particles at t1.

12. State one different in the arrangement of the particles of substance Y before t1 and after t4.

Before t1, particles are arrange in an orderly manner and close to one another. After t4, the particles are very far apart and randomly arrange.