Isomerism Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. Isomerism is the existence of two or more compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.Examples of the two isomers of butane(The 2 molecules have same molecular formulae but different structural formulae) Isomers have different physical properties because they … Read more

Structural Formula of Carbon Compounds

A molecular formula is a chemical formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in one molecule of a substance A structural formula is a chemical formula which shows the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule of a substance. Writing the Structural Formulae Rules to be followed: All atoms are … Read more

Chemical Properties of Alkanes

Chemical Properties of Alkanes Alkanes are chemically less reactive compared to the other carbon compound such as alkene, alcohol or carboxylic acid. Alkanes do not react with chemicals such as oxidizing agents, reducing agents, acids and alkalis. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon with strong carbon-carbon (C – C) bonds and carbon-hydrogen (C – H) bonds. All … Read more

Physical Properties of Alkanes

Physical Properties of Alkanes Alkanes are covalent compounds, hence their physical properties are similar to other covalent compounds. The atoms in an alkane molecule are bonded together by strong covalent bonds  (intramolecular forces). The molecules are held together by weak Van der Waals forces (intermolecular forces). Boiling Points Boiling Point of Alkane The boiling point of alkane … Read more


General Formula: CnH2n+2, n = 1, 2, 3, … Functional Group: No Functional Group First 3 Members: Alkane are the simplest family of hydrocarbons – compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. They only contain carbon-hydrogen bonds and carbon-carbon single bonds. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon Nomenclature of Alkanes Nomenclature = Naming method. All organic carbon compounds … Read more

Homologous Series

Homologous Series A series of compounds with similar chemical properties, in which members differ from one another by the possession of an additional CH2 group, is called a homologous series. Each homologous series must have the following four characteristics: Every member in the homologous series can be represented by a common formula. For example: Alkane: … Read more


Hydrocarbon MUST Remember!Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Saturated Hydrocarbon Hydrocarbon is a compound made out of the elements carbon and hydrogen only. Examples of hydrocarbon are alkane, alkene and alkyne.  Hydrocarbons can be divided into two groups: saturated hydrocarbonSaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons where all its carbon atoms are tied to … Read more

Carbon Compound

Carbon is located in group 14. A carbon atom contains 6 electrons, therefore the electronic configuration is 2.4. It has 4 valance electrons in the outermost orbital, as shown in the diagram. In order to achieve a stable outer octet of electrons, it forms four covalent bonds. Example Methane When a carbon atom combines with … Read more

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Chapter 2 – Carbon Compounds

Revision Notes Carbon Compounds Hydrocarbon Homologous Series Alkane Physical Properties of Alkanes Chemical Properties of Alkanes Structural Formula Isomerism Alkene Isomerism of Alkenes Physical Properties of Alkenes Preparing Alkenes Chemical Properties of Alkenes Polymerisation of Alkenes Differences Between Alkane and Alkene Alcohol Isomerism of Alcohol Physical Properties of Alkohols Preparing Alkohol Chemical Properties of Alkohol … Read more