MCQ – Particulat Nature of Matter

Questions Which of the following statements is not true? Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. The particle theory of matter states that matter is made up of a large number of tiny and discrete particles. The kinetic energy of the particles in a matter increases if its temperature increases. The particles in … Read more

Three States of Matter – Structured Question 4

Structure Question 4: Figure (a) Figure (b) Figure (a) shows the set-up of the apparatus to investigate the heating process of substance Y. In this experiment, solid substance Y was heated in a water bath from room temperature until it turned into gas. Substance Y was stirred throughout the whole experiment. The temperature of substance … Read more

Three States of Matter – Structured Question 1

Structure Question 1: The above diagram shows the apparatus used in an experiment to determine the freezing point of liquid naphthalene. The liquid naphthalene is cooled from 100°C in a conical flask and it is stirred continuously with a thermometer. The temperature of liquid naphthalene is recorded in every 30 seconds. The results obtained are … Read more

Valence Electron

Valence Electron Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell. The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are called valence electrons. The valence electrons have great significance in determining the chemical properties of an atom. Elements with the same number of valence electron have the same chemical properties.   Example: Given that … Read more

Electron Arrangement in Atom

We have learnt that electrons occupy orbits with definite energy level of an atom, as suggested by Neils Bohr. These orbits with definite energy level are known as the shell. Every single shell is capable of holding up to certain amount of electrons. The first shell can hold up to two electrons. This is called … Read more

Isotopes

Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of certain elements which have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atoms. It can also be defined as atoms of certain elements with the same proton numbers but with different nucleon numbers. Properties of Isotope Number of proton equal Number of neutron … Read more

Proton Number and Nucleon Number

Proton Number and Nucleon Number Proton number = the number of protons Nucleon number = Number of protons + Number of neutrons Proton Number The proton number (Z) represent the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. Proton number = the number of protons The proton number is also known as the … Read more

The Charge of Particles

The Charge of Particles A neutral atom contains the same number of electrons as the protons. The positive and negative charges of the protons and electrons respectively neutralise each other, for example, (+4) + (-4) = 0 If the number of protons is greater than the number of electrons, the particle is positively charged. If … Read more