Dilution is a process of adding water to the standard solution lowered the concentration of the solution. In dilution of solution, we should take note that mole of solute before dilution is equal to the mole of solute after dilution. Number of mol of solute before dilution = Number of mole of solute after dilution … Read more

Molarity and Number of Moles

Number of mole of solute in a solution can be calculated by using the following formula[n = frac{{MV}}{{1000}}]n = number of mole of soluteM = molaruty of the solutionV = volume of the solution in cm3 Example:How many moles of zinc sulphate is present in 200cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 zinc sulphate solution? Answer:Molarity, M … Read more

Solute, Solvent and Solution

If a substance dissolves in a liquid, it is called a solute and the liquid is called the solvent. The resulting mixture is called a solution. Solute + Solvent = Solution Solute Solid which dissolves Solvent Liquid which does the dissolving Solution Solute + solvent Saturated solution A solution which will dissolve no more solute. … Read more

pH Scale

pH scale is a measure of acidity and alkalinity. Practically, it is numbered between 0 and 14.  Neutral substance has pH of 7. A solution of pH less than 7 is acidic The lower the pH, the more acidic the solution or the higher the concentration of H+ ions in the solution. A solution of … Read more


Bases are compounds which react with acid to form a salt and water as only products. Bases that soluble in water are called alkalis. In aqueous solution, alkali it produces hydroxide ions (OH–). In short, alkalis are substances that form hydroxide ions (OH–(aq)) in waterExampleSodium hydroxide NaOH gives Na+(aq) and OH–(aq) ions, NaOH → Na+ + OH–calcium … Read more

Role of Water to Show Properties of Acids

Role of Water to Show Properties of Acids The presence of water is essential for the formation of hydrogen ions and it is only the presence of these ions which causes acidity. Without water, an acid won’t show the properties of acid. Example Without water, the molecules of ethanoic acid do not disassociate to form … Read more

Chemical Properties of Acids

Acids have the following chemical properties: Acid + Reactive Metal → Salt + Hydrogen gas Acid + Metal Carbonate → Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide gas Acid + Base oxide → Salt + Water Acid + Alkali → Salt + Water Acid + Reactive Metal Acids react with metals that is more electropositive than hydrogen in the electrochemical series to produce salt … Read more


Acids Acids form a class of chemical substances which contain hydrogen ions in aqueous solution, H+ (aq), as the only positive ion. Acids are usually classified into mineral or organic acids. Mineral Acids generally much stronger most do not occur naturally usually have simpler molecules Example Sulphuric Acid Nitric Acid Hydrochloric Acid Phoshoric Acid Carbonic … Read more

SPM Form 4 Chemistry Chapter 7 – Acids and Bases

Revision Notes 7.1 Acids7.2 Chemical Properties of Acids7.3 Bases7.4 Role of Water and Strength of Acids/Base7.5 pH Scale and Acids/Alkali Indicators7.6 Concentration7.7 Molarity and Number of Moles7.8 Dilution Videos Acids as Proton Donor Chemical Properties of Acids Alkalis (Bases) Concentration of a Solution Unit of Concentration of a Solution Concentration of Acid Dilution | Example Preparing a … Read more