Understanding salts

  1. A salt is an ionic compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid is partly or completely replaced by a metal ion or ammonium ion.
  2. All salts are chemically and electrically neutral.

Example

Diagram above shows that when the hydrogen ion in nitric acid is replaced by Na+, Ca2+, NH4+ or Al3+ ions, salts are formed.

Example:

State whether the following chemical are salt or not salt..
  1. barium nitrate _______
  2. zinc sulphate _______
  3. aluminium oxide _______
  4. carbon dioxide _______
  5. tin nitrate _______
  6. glucose _______
  7. ethanol _______

Answer:
Barium nitrate, zinc sulphate and tin nitrate are salts.
Aluminium oxide, carbon dioxide, glucose and ethanol are not salts.

There are 4 types of salt that you need to know in the SPM syllabus:
Four type of Salt, there are:

  1. Nitrate,
  2. Chloride,
  3. Sulphate,
  4. Carbonate,

Solubility of Salts

Solubility of Salts

  1. Solubility is the ability of a compound to dissolve in a solvent.
  2. Table below shows the solubility of the salts of nitrate, sulphate, chloride and carbonate.

SaltSolubility
Salt of potassium, sodium and ammoniumAll soluble in water
Salt of nitrateAll soluble in water
Salt of sulphateMostly soluble in water except:
(Pb) Lead sulphate
(Ba) Barium sulphate
(Ca) Calcium sulphate
Salt of chlorideMostly soluble in water except:
(Pb) Lead chloride
(Ag) silver chloride
(Hg) mercury chloride
Salt of carbonateMostly insoluble in water except:
Potassium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Ammonium carbonate
Notes:
Lead halide such as lead(II) chloride (PbCl2), lead(II) bromide (PbBr2) and lead (II) iodide (PbI2) are insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water.

Solubility of oxide and hydroxide

Oxide and HydroxideSolubility
OxideMostly insoluble in water except: K2O and Na2O.
HydroxideMostly insoluble in water except: KOH and NaOH

3 thoughts on “Understanding salts

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